Benjamin Bratton discusses speculative design as an alternative to mainstream design approaches, proposing setting systems up "so that the outcomes solve themselves." Bratton challenges designers to think outside of human-centered temporal and spatial categories, because, "the futures worth designing are probably those that exceed human phenomenology." Bratton proposes that the 21st century will see the preeminence of new design fields: the internet of things, robotics/AI, 3d printing, and biotechnology. He discusses the relevance of speculative realism/object-oriented ontology. Bratton argues that art and design as disciplines remain vital because they accommodate experimentation that wouldn't be permitted inside the institutions of science and technology.